Simple and Sensitive Method for Sampling, Extraction and Determination of Lead Barium and Antimony in Gunshot Residue Samples
Keywords:Sampling, Extraction, GSRs, GFAAS and Firing time
The determination of elements typically found in gunshot residues (GSRs) such as Lead (Pb), Barium (Ba) and Antimony (Sb) plays an important role in the forensic investigation of firearm-related events. The present work developed a simple and highly sensitive method for sampling, extraction and determination of those elements by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS). The factors that might influence the efficiency of the sampling and extraction were investigated. The studied results showed that 100 µL of 5% HNO3 was sufficient for a single cotton swabbing. The extraction of Pb Ba and Sb was performed by using 1% HNO3 for 30 min at room temperature. The figures of merit from the proposed method in aqueous solution and optimum conditions presented a highly sensitive of 1.31, 3.70 and 0.42 µg L-1 limit of detection and high accuracy of 99.48±3.02%, 99.42±6.15% and 97.21±3.90% of recovery for the determination of Pb, Ba and Sb in GSRs, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the forensic study. Under optimal sampling and extraction conditions, the GSR samples on the back of the hands of the shooter after shooting at various times were determined by GFAAS. Friedman and t-test statistical results showed that the amounts of all elements significantly decreased over time after firing and different cleaning conditions at a 95% confidence level. It was found that Pb, Ba and Sb from the hands after washing with tap water had been observed up to 3 hr after shooting. The developed sampling and extraction methods are beneficial and help to identify the criminals.
Keywords: Sampling, Extraction, GSRs, GFAAS and Firing time
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